This page will give an overview of 3rd grade math at Green Hills School. Described below are the focus of study for the year, the mathematical practices and a list of the units of study.
Focus of Study
The major work of math in Grade 3 will focus on these areas:
- First instruction on multiplication and division through area models, number patterns and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
- Understand the properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
- Fluently multiply and divide up to products of 100 (Facts 1 - 12).
- Solve problems with more than one step involving the four operations.
- Identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
- Develop an understanding of fractions as numbers (number sense) through number lines, pictures, diagrams and begin to use them with numerical expressions and equations. Focus in grade 3 is heavy on the conceptual understanding of fractions in terms of size, comparison and understanding the relation to other fractions and whole numbers, and a lot of work with unit fractions, which are fractions that contain a one in the numerator. Mastery of operations with fractions is targeted for completion in Grades 5 & 6 so we spend a lot of time building fraction foundations in Grade 3 & 4.
- Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes and masses of objects.
- Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate these to multiplication and addition.
Additional work will be in these areas and infused throughout the modules:
- Build on the Grade 2 foundation of place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
- Represent and interpret data using representations (bar graphs, picture graphs, line plots) that are appropriate for the grade level.
- Geometric measurement: Recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane (2D) figures and distinguish between linear and area measurements.
- Use mathematical reasoning when working with shapes and their attributes.
We want our students to be great problem solvers and have many strategies to solve math problems. In class, the children will learn a variety of instructional strategies that will become foundational for work from grades K - 8.
"Procedural fluency is the ability to apply procedures accurately, efficiently, and flexibly; to transfer procedures to different problems and contexts; to build or modify procedures from other procedures; and to recognize when one strategy or procedure is more appropriate to apply than another." National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
By the end of Grade 3 , a goal is for students to be fluent with single digit products and quotients within 100 by memory. We are also looking for students to be fluent with addition and subtraction within 1000 using place value strategies, the relationship between addition and subtraction and mental math strategies, as well as the standard algorithm. (The goal is for the standard algorithm to be mastered by the end of Grade 4 for addition and subtraction.)
Parents can help at home by continuing to help students practice multiplication and division facts, but note that the facts are not learned/practiced in class in order from 0-10. Based on patterns and relationships, students learn facts in the order: 2-5, 10, 0,1, 6-9.
In addition to the work with skills, procedures and problem solving, students spend time in class working on the mathematical practices. These practices are based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics research. Teachers are helping students become strong mathematicians through these processes.
MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
MP2: Be able to reason abstractly and quantitatively.
MP3: Construct or build viable arguments (proofs) and critique the reasoning of others at an age appropriate level.
MP4: Create mathematical models from real world situations.
MP5: Use appropriate tools strategically, like pencil and paper, calculators, number lines, tape diagrams, etc. to help solve problems in flexible ways.
MP6: Attend to precision in their answers and interpretations of their answers in context.
MP7: Look for and make use of the structure of patterns, equations and expressions to help solve more challenging problems.
MP8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Units of Study
Eureka Math is comprised of units called Modules. The modules build on each other, creating a unified sequence of topics to help build student understanding and the development of computation skills and the ability to reason mathematically. A lot of time is spent on building conceptual understanding, meaning we spend a lot of time with models such as drawings and objects, in order to build a strong foundation of understanding how math works, not just how to solve quick addition or subtraction equations.
Module 1: Properties of Multiplication & Division and Solving Problems with Units of 2-5 and 10 (Multiplication/Divsion Facts 2-5 & 10)
Module 2: Place Value and Problem Solving with Units of Measure (Conceptual understanding of metric units and time units)
Module 3: Multiplication and Division with Units of 0, 1, 6-9 and Multiples of 10 (Multiplication/Division Facts 0,1,6-9)
Module 4: Multiplication & Area
Module 5: Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line (Conceptual understanding and number sense with fractions)
Module 6: Collecting & Displaying Categorical & Measurement Data (Scaled picture graphs, bar graphs, line plots)
Module 7: Geometry & Measurement Word Problems (Line plots, area and perimeter and multi-step problems)